Duke Ellington was born as Edward Kennedy Ellington on April 29, 1899 in Washington, D.C. His parents were James Edward Ellington and Daisy Kennedy Ellington. Even from a young age, Ellington was interested in music. He started piano lessons at age 7 and was largely self-taught, learning by ear and through experimentation on the keyboard.
First Jobs Playing Music
Ellington’s first job playing music was in 1917 when he worked as a soda jerk and performed piano at the Poodle Dog Café. During this early phase of his music career, Ellington played with Doc Perry and then Sonny Greer in the Washingtonians group. These early experiences playing jazz helped shape Ellington’s style.
|Soda jerk and pianist at Poodle Dog Café
|Played with Sonny Greer, Doc Perry, and the Washingtonians jazz group
By his early 20s, Ellington was gaining a reputation in Washington D.C. as a skillful pianist and suiting composer. Leading up to these years, Ellington’s parents had strongly encouraged him to study portrait art in school rather than pursue music. Ellington did work during these emerging years as a commercial artist and sign painter. Yet his passion remained with music and performing.
The First Duke Ellington Orchestra
In 1923, Ellington formed his first orchestra, then called The Duke’s Serenaders. Their first performance was on November 29, 1923. In 1926, the word “Serenaders” was dropped and the group was renamed The Duke Ellington Orchestra. They began a regular gig at New York’s famous Cotton Club in 1927. Ellington worked closely with business partner and agent Irving Mills which helped land the Cotton Club opportunity.
Cotton Club Years
The arrival on the New York scene and extended residency at Harlem’s Cotton Club marked significant commercial breakthroughs for Ellington and his orchestra. It was during the Cotton Club years that Ellington honed his distinctive composing and arranging style.
The Cotton Club had strict segregation policies and the club primarily catered to white audiences. Despite not being welcome as customers in the club, black musicians like Ellington helped make the club hugely popular. The rise of radio and improvements in recording technology also fueled the Ellington orchestra’s success through frequent national radio broadcasts.
Growing Fame and Carnegie Hall
In the 1930s and 1940s, the fame of Duke Ellington and his orchestra grew through national tours, films appearances, and further radio exposure. The orchestra had a diverse group of musicians that fueled Ellington’s innovative arrangements. Some key longstanding members included baritone saxophonist Harry Carney, bassist Jimmy Blanton, and tenor saxophonist Ben Webster.
Notable Musical Works
Some of Ellington’s best known songwriting from this era includes:
- It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing) (1932)
- Sophisticated Lady (1933)
- Solitude (1934)
- In a Sentimental Mood (1935)
- Caravan (1937)
- I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart (1938)
- Take the “A” Train (1941)
Beyond individual hit songs, Ellington was also a prolific composer of longer suites and scores. His extended works experimented by fusing jazz and classical forms, including:
- Black, Brown and Beige sweet (1943)
- New Orleans Suite (1970)
- A Drum is a Woman (1956)
In 1943, Ellington debuted his groundbreaking Black, Brown and Beige suite at Carnegie Hall. While the work received a mixed response initially, the Carnegie Hall concert marked a major milestone for jazz music to be showcased as serious art form in the hallowed classical music venue. Ellington later returned to Carnegie Hall on multiple occasions as his career advanced.
Touring, Films and Musical Evolution
As Ellington’s fame rose during the 1930s-1950s period, he also had opportunities to tour nationally and internationally. The orchestra made multiple European tours and also toured extensively by road across the United States.
Ellington branched out to compose and record music for Hollywood films and Broadway productions. He also began experimenting more with Sacred Concerts that fused Christian liturgical music and jazz idioms. The orchestra’s sound continued evolving with personnel changes. By the 1950s, he added more contemporary jazz stylings just as new pop music genres like rock and roll and R&B emerged and threatened jazz’s commercial viability.
Later Years and Legacy
Even in his later years, Ellington continued prolifically composing, recording and touring the world with his orchestra. In his final decade, he created multiple Grammy-winning albums. Through to the mid-1970s he regularly performed concerts and was actively involved managing his orchestra.
Death and Posthumous Grammys
Duke Ellington died from complications of lung cancer and pneumonia on May 24, 1974 in New York City. He was 75 years old at his death. Ellington earned numerous posthumous awards including earning two Grammy Lifetime Achievement Awards in 1976 and 1981. He was also post-humorously awarded the Grammy “Best Jazz Composition” in 1999 and 2009 for songs that were released decades after his death but included his arrangements.
Impact on Jazz and American Music
As a composer, bandleader and pianist, Duke Ellington made unmatched contributions to the evolution of jazz over a career that spanned more than 50 years. His orchestra nurtured the talents of many young musicians and his innovative eye helped jazz shed its novelty beginnings to become respected as an art form.
Beyond jazz circles, Ellington had wider cultural influence on 20th century American music. Modern genres like rock, R&B, blues, and hip hop all owe some of their heritage to Ellington’s artistic bravery exploring the African American musical experience. Through genre-bending composition and willingness to experiment in longer form works, Ellington helped pave the way for the concept of musical suites and rock operas to emerge.
In summary, Duke Ellington was one of the most important musical artists of the 20th century. Born in Washington D.C. in 1899, Ellington grew up immersed in music. He formed his first jazz orchestra in 1923.
The group found major success during longstanding years of performances at Harlem’s famous Cotton Club. This helped launch Ellington to national prominence via live shows, film music, radio broadcasts and recordings.
Some of Ellington’s best known compositions include “It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing),” “Sophisticated Lady,” “Mood Indigo” and “Take the A Train.” But his ambitious longer suites and sacred concerts broke new ground fusing jazz intricacy with sweep and scale of classical works.
Duke Ellington earned many honors over his 50+ year career. This includes 13 competitive Grammy awards, 9 of which he won after his death in 1974 at age 75. The longevity of Ellington’s popularity is a testament to his visionary talent for melody and arranging. His music featured complex textures that made full use of the diverse skills of his band members.
In many ways, Duke Ellington took jazz music from being considered novelty entertainment to respected art form. The sophistication of sound he pioneered informed nearly all subsequent forms of American popular music. As such, Ellington’s influence continues inspiring new generations of musicians and music lovers decades after his passing.
Frequently Asked Questions about Duke Ellington
Here are some common questions and answers about Duke Ellington’s life and musical legacy:
Where was Duke Ellington born and raised?
Duke Ellington was born on April 29, 1899 in Washington D.C. He spent nearly all his childhood and teenage years in Washington D.C. and first developed his talent on the thriving club scene there.
What instruments did Duke Ellington play?
Ellington was an accomplished pianist and frequently composed music sitting at the instrument. While piano was his main instrument, he also sometimes played organ and other keyboards.
When did Duke Ellington die and how old was he?
Duke Ellington passed away on May 24, 1974 at the age of 75. The cause of his death was pneumonia and lung cancer. He continued composing and touring with his orchestra actively until just months before he died.
How many Grammy awards has Duke Ellington won?
Duke Ellington earned 13 competitive Grammy awards over his career. He also received posthumous lifetime achievement honors in 1976 and 1981. Nine of his Grammy awards came after his death for newly released music and re-issues.
What musical artists were influenced by Duke Ellington?
Modern era artists like Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Stevie Wonder, the Beatles, Frank Sinatra and Charlie Parker were all influenced by Ellington’s style. He also directly mentored later musicians like Tony Bennett, Toni Morrison and Alice Babs during his career.